Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a common eating disorder with the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric diseases. However, few studies have examined inpatient characteristics and treatment for AN. This study aimed to characterise the association between mortality and risk factors in patients with AN in acute-care hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, retrospective analysis of the Japanese Diagnosis and Procedure Combination inpatient database. Data extraction occurred from April 2010 to March 2016. We estimated in-hospital mortality and identified independent risk factors, using multivariate logistic regression analysis to examine patient characteristics and physical and psychological comorbidities. RESULTS: We identified 6937 patients with AN aged ≥12 years in 885 acute-care hospitals. Of these, 361 (5.2%) were male. Male and female participants' median ages at first admission were 34 (17-65) and 28 (17-41) years, respectively. In total, 195 in-hospital patient deaths, including 22 (6.1%) men and 173 (2.6%) women, it was observed that the unadjusted odds ratio of mortality for male patients was more than twice that for female patients (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.45-3.81). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated an adjusted odds ratio of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.29-3.73). Age at first hospital admission, percentage of ideal body weight, comorbidities, and hypotension were significantly associated with increased mortality risk, but the frequency of hospitalization, bradycardia, and other psychiatric disorders were not. Treatment in a university hospital was associated with lower mortality risk (odds ratio: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.30-0.67). CONCLUSION: The results highlighted sex differences in mortality rates. Potential risk factors could contribute to improved treatment and outcomes. These retrospective findings indicate a need for further longitudinal examination of these patients. BMC Psychiatry. 2020 Jan 13;20(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s12888-020-2433-8.
The Eating Disorder Journal(February 2020, Vol. 21, No.2)