Wednesday, February 1, 2017

#DearNYFW - It's Time to Prioritize Health & Diversity!



New research published today in the International Journal of Eating Disorders confirms what we’ve all known for years - models are being pressured to lose weight or change their body shape/size, and as a result, disordered eating and full-blown eating disorders are rife in the industry. 
Pressure to conform to the ultra-thin beauty ideal hurts not only models but consumers as well. So, in advance of New York Fashion Week, NEDA has teamed up with the researchers, the Model Alliance, and more than 30 leading models - including Iskra Lawrence, Jennie Runk, Sabina Karlsson, and Geena Rocero – to call on the fashion industry to put health first! 
In the open letter we released today, these amazing models challenged the American fashion industry to make a serious commitment to promote health and diversity on the runway. Now we need you, as a consumer, to stand with them and make it clear that health and diversity on the runway are important to us all. 
Sign the public petition today and challenge the fashion industry to…
  • Make a serious commitment to promote health and diversity. 
  • Uphold the understanding that models under age 16 do not belong on the runway. 
  • Observe child labor laws in New York State, which require that models under 18-years-old have proper documents and schedules. 
  • Review the latest research on eating disorders and unhealthy weight control practices in the fashion industry and commit to working collaboratively with industry stakeholders and medical experts.
P.S Don't forget to spread the word and amplify the campaign on social media with #DearNYFW!

Influence of culture and ethnicity on eating disorders: Part 2 of 2

Cultivating Curiosity in the Treatment of Eating Disorders

By Malak Saddy RDN, LD
(This is second of a 2 part series on multiculturalism and diversity in the eating disorder community. To read part 1, click here)
As my sixth year in the role of a dietitian comes to a close, I am continually confounded at the under representation of cultural awareness and sensitivity in the treatment and handling of patients with eating disorders. Unfortunately, these significant areas are pretty much overlooked in our field.
One of the most common questions I’m often asked is, “How does an eating disorder begin?” Of course, the contributing factors of an eating disorder can be multifaceted and wide-ranging. Causes can be biological (genetic or hormonal imbalance), psychological (depression, anxiety, or low self-esteem) and social/cultural (environmental). This article explores the traditional food habits of different cultures and religious groups and how those customs have been adapted here in the United States. It focuses mainly on the Hispanic American and Asian American populations. It also touches on some of the religious sensitivities and food intake practices of the Jewish, Seventh Day Adventist, Muslim, and Hindu faiths, while also talking about some of the common challenges these populations may face, such as lack of acculturation, longer length of stay in treatment, decreased intake of traditional foods, and both nutritionally and non-nutritionally related health problems.
Culture is one of the most defining aspects of a society. It encompasses a complex system of beliefs, customs, dress, art, rituals, values, and even daily behaviors. Through culture, members often relate and identify themselves. Cultural intricacies and standards affect their lives from birth and are passed on to subsequent generations. In regards to eating disorders, it can have a profound effect on how the client sees his/her disorder, and how an individual reacts to treatment. Acquiring a better understanding and appreciation of different cultures and religious practices (essentials) will perhaps aid clinicians in understanding the behaviors, values, traditions, and beliefs of some of the various racial, ethnic, and religious groups they encounter.
Cultural competencies, which are defined by having “the ability to understand and respond effectively to the cultural and linguistic needs of patients or clients” (Brannon, 2004), are becoming necessary in educating clients. Gaining insight to these competencies helps ensure effective support and counseling and is accomplished by showing a professional attitude and appropriate communication skills. “Cultural competency is not an optional skill to learn; it is a necessity for all dietitians and healthcare professionals, regardless of their specialty” (Brannon, 2004). It is also important to develop personal cultural competencies: recognizing your own personal cultural biases and preconceived ideas or opinions; learning about and becoming involved with people from diverse cultures; seeking out and increasing your knowledge about other cultures; and learning and developing multicultural communication and counseling skills.
One common thread that runs across cultures around the world is food.  It is consumed for sustenance of course, but it also can indicate status, education, and position in a society. Food has the power to instigate and strengthen bonds among individuals, communities, and even countries with different traditions and customs. It can be pervasive with effects and connotations in many of the social, economic, and political aspects of a culture. Food related behaviors take on daily routines and in some cultures, specific rituals from cultivating to choosing, preparing, and then consuming the food are part of their mainstream lives. Harvests are celebrated across the world in some fashion or the other and bring joy to the community. Holidays, whether religious or secular, are celebrated with food. Each celebration is associated with different foods and tastes, that in turn are interconnected to the geography of the land, the seasons, and the customs.

Asian American 

The Asian culture revolves around respect for authority, especially toward the elderly, who are revered and held in high esteem. Women in most Asian societies are taught to be submissive and obedient. Punctuality and precision in any task or job are of utmost importance. Education is an integral part of the culture and is pursued by the majority of the people. Asian American women who have eating disorders may struggle with assimilating into a westernized culture. In a study comparing college women from China, Korea, and the U.S., Korean women showed the greatest degree of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors, followed by Chinese women, and lastly, U.S. women.

Hispanic 

Hispanic families are a close-knit group and they place great value on appearance, reputation, parents, and pride. More than 90 percent of Hispanics are Catholic and religion plays a significant role in their day-to-day life. Researchers at Harvard Medical School researched food behaviors in five generations of Mexican American women and found that second generation women exhibited the highest level of disordered eating behaviors. Due to the stereotype that eating disorders may only affect Caucasian adolescent girls, the diagnosis of an eating disorder in the Hispanic population is often under diagnosed and left undetected. Traditional foods include rice, beans, tortilla, avocado, corn, and tomato based foods and less milk and dairy options.
While motivation and hope from clients wanting recovery comes in different forms, faith can have a significant role in their recovery. A patient can seek conventional practices as well as rely on faith and a higher power for guidance. A study conducted in 2003 found that increases in spiritual wellbeing over the course of treatment resulted in healthier attitudes towards eating, improved body image, improvement in psychological symptoms, and less interpersonal conflict.

Judaism

Dietary laws play a significant role in the Orthodox Jewish faith, and keeping kosher can create barriers to clients getting treatment as well as the strong stigma surrounding mental health illnesses. In a study of ultra-orthodox and Syrian Jewish community in Brooklyn, 1 out of 19 girls were diagnosed with an eating disorder, a rate about 50% higher than the general U.S. population (Sacker, 1996). To keep kosher includes three basic rules: avoid any non-kosher animals (shellfish, land animals that do not both chew their cud and have cleft hooves), avoid eating meat and dairy together, and eat only meats slaughtered by Kosher guidelines. Food is in bountiful amounts during Shabbat and Jewish holidays, each holding their own specialty and heritage. Similarly, with the Arab culture, there is a constant pressure for women of marrying age to be thin and free of any mental health issues, therefore creating barriers against receiving treatment and an under-diagnosed population.

Islam

In the Islamic world, food traditions are often based around the concepts of halal (permitted) and haram(prohibited). Haram foods and drinks are mainly pork, pork products (ham, ribs, pepperoni, bacon, sausage, some gelatin), and alcohol. Halal meats refer to the slaughter of animals according to the Islamic rule; it also includes those animals that are hoofed herbivores. All able bodied and mentally stable adult Muslims are encouraged to fast during the month of Ramadan. It is a time of self-purification and reflection. In the case of patients with eating disorders, this can trigger and heighten the condition in clients who are Muslim. A clinician can recommend that the client abstain from other things such as social media or volunteer and help the needy to participate in the holy month. One can also speak to an imam to have this person provide their support in refraining from fasting from food/water especially during their illness.

Seventh Day Adventist

Other religions that have dietary laws include Seventh Day Adventist and Hinduism. Members practicing in the Seventh Day Adventist faith are a member of the Protestant sect and consider Saturday the day of Sabbath. Typically, Adventists are vegetarian or vegan, however, some may eat meat and it must be “clean” (chicken, beef, venison, lamb, and goat). There are eight basic principles for a healthy lifestyle and these include fresh air, sunshine, abstemiousness (self-discipline in abstaining from alcohol, caffeine, sugar, and drugs), rest, exercise, water, nutrition, and trust in Divine Power.

Hinduism

Hinduism has over 900 million followers and is the major religion in South Asian countries including Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and Pakistan. Hindus practice following a strict vegetarian diet forbidding the consumption of eggs as well. Unlike most religions, Hinduism has no single founder or scripture and no commonly agreed set of teachings. Some Hindus practice specific dietary rituals including sprinkling water around their plate for purification, refusing food that is not offered to God first and, therefore, having God’s blessing, and saving five pieces of food to acknowledge the debt owed to the divine forces.
Barriers to treatment and lack of support from family all are similar within the cultures and religions. Literacy in English is a highly significant barrier to appropriate health care and education. Education among immigrants is low and many find jobs that are directed towards the auto industry, simple business, and unskilled jobs. This is gradually changing, as children of immigrants are seeking and obtaining higher education and life standards. Lack of transportation within families can impede appropriate health care delivery. Due to low literacy rates and lack of resources, most don’t feel comfortable taking public transportation. Insurance coverage is limited and financial resources can be barriers that also affect preventative health care.
Different cultures, religions, and ethnicities are becoming more exposed in the United States, and in order to provide appropriate health care and education, clinicians are learning how to meet their needs. While many immigrants assume exceptions to be made to their cultural norms, many do adopt the American lifestyle including food portion sizes and fast food menus, while still trying to maintain their own cultural food habits.

Influence of culture and ethnicity on eating disorders: Part 1 of 2

The Little Girl with the Hummus Lunch
By Malak Saddy, RDN, LD
***This is the first of a two-part series that addresses the significance of culture and ethnicity in eating disorders treatment.
Food, religion, culture, and traditions are part and parcel of humans’ daily lives. It is perhaps the most unifying aspect of humanity. Past our bodily needs for nourishment, and sustenance, what, where, how, and perhaps with whom we eat, identifies us. Throughout history religious holidays worldwide have been celebrated with different foods and traditions as part of the gatherings and festivities, with each holiday having its soul dish, or dishes, reflecting that culture’s resources and the ethnicity of its people. Yet, for me it took two decades to appreciate being that unique individual.
The scene at the elementary cafeteria table was always awkward, cautiously pulling out my piece of pita bread, and tub of hummus from my lunchbox, and explaining it to all the girls sitting around me. I winced at the smell of fresh garlic while they were eating their crust-less peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, and sipping on Hawaiian Punch. I was always trying to avoid their repulsion, and stares, finally swallowing it down as quickly as possible in a private moment of humiliation. I wanted so desperately just to have a simple white bread sandwich in my lunchbox, or at least a cool name for the creamy mush that I brought in, almost every day.
Socializing outside of school was similarly loaded. On the rare occasion my parents would let me go to a friend’s birthday party, I quickly learned that the cheese pizza would vanish first and I would almost never get enough. Chuckie Cheese’s pizzas were always layered with loads of pepperoni and ham and as a Muslim, I couldn’t eat it—there’s a dietary prohibition on pork in Islam. I learned later, after experience and a couple of misses, to always leave my game machine no matter how close to winning I was, and be one of the first ones at the table, so I could get first dibs on a slice of cheese pizza.
My childhood insecurities were my earliest cognizance of the implications food has in our culture and our lives. My childhood home’s food supply was ruled by an American-Lebanese health nut (my mother) who only gave us cookies from packages scrawled with the words “oatmeal” and “flaxseed,” and always made sure we had protein for breakfast before going to school, even if that protein came from a can of tuna at 7 a.m.! She took advantage of our Middle Eastern ethnicity (hence the hummus for lunch), using that cuisine’s traditional ingredients like olive oil, cracked wheat, and plain yogurt, and infusing them with some of the American recipes she would find in health magazines. The results, always beautiful homemade meals, and the aroma of freshly cooked ingredients, welcomed us every afternoon coming back home from a long day at school.
Her nutritional awareness, and cautiousness, stuck with me. Preventing my father’s organs from being ravaged by diabetes was dependent on the foods we ate as a family. As his children, we are also genetically predisposed to diabetes, so nutritional meals and good eating habits were of utmost importance.
The positive and negative of that food equation mattered, I realized. I used that realization, but not always in a productive way. My later relationship with food was altered by the culture and media around me. Regardless of the foundation my parents instilled in me as a child, the media was more powerful and had the upper hand. Magazines, television ads, and billboards always displayed the skinniest, most beautiful girls, even if the ad was for dog food! There was no escape. I didn’t know how I could channel my good and bad experiences about food until I decided I wanted to become a dietitian with a focus on eating disorders.
Upon agreeing to write this article, I decided to dig a little deeper past my own personal definition of culture. When you Google the word “culture,” multiple definitions come up: top stories on how MTV is gearing more towards the young culture; creating positive cultures in the work place; culture of cheese; and the biological culture of bacteria. The definition that held true throughout my research, and was pertinent to this article was “culture is a way of life of a group of people—the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.”(https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture.html)
Food consumption, restrictions, variety, and resources in a society, all affect that culture. As dietitians, therapists, or clinicians in this field, we must be thoroughly aware of our clients’ religious, and cultural backgrounds, to help build their trust in us, and be able to eventually help themselves through their personal recovery process. In my next part of this series, I will discuss the Hispanic and Asian ethnicities touching on cultural norms, dietary values, and common ingredients and foods used within each group. Religious sensitives of the Muslim, Jewish, Seventh Day Adventist, and Hindu population will also be broken down all in part to better prepare us before meeting with clients who identify to a specific faith or culture.

How Treatment Providers Can Undermine Access to Care for Binge Eating Disorder

How Treatment Providers Can Undermine Access to Care for Binge Eating Disorder

By Cyndi Eddington, Ashley Solomon, Psy.D., and Angela Woods
Over the last several years, laws in the United States have expanded insurance coverage and made treatment more accessible to individuals with binge eating disorder. While true parity and access to care for marginalized populations remains unrealized, we have seen strides in our country. Providers have in many cases been vocal advocates and helped to push important legislation and change forward. Unfortunately, however, there are still many ways in which providers may inadvertently be working against the process. If you are invested in being one of these individuals, follow our how-to guide below.
  1. Failing to recognize how being underinsured may impact your patients.
While the Affordable Care Act has increased access to health insurance in the United States, over 31 million insured Americans continued to face underinsurance through 2014 (Commonwealth Fund, 2015). Even those with plans through their employer are increasingly likely to be underinsured. Being underinsured means that, despite having health insurance, an individual cannot adequately afford the deductibles or other out of pocket costs associated with the plan. The result of this is that even those with health insurance are not accessing care when they need it. We know that patients with binge eating disorder face a myriad of barriers to accessing care, such as lack of early identification and social stigma, and underinsurance is a very real and prevalent barrier as well. For those patients who do start treatment, recognize that underinsurance may play a role in early termination of care or refusal to seek higher levels of care even when needed. Perhaps most frustratingly, dropping out of treatment due to resource constraints like underinsurance further undermines patients’ confidence that treatment could eventually be feasible or effective.
  1. Don’t attempt to specialize. Why limit yourself?
Not only do our patients deserve expert care, but we elevate the standards and enhance the legitimacy of our work when we support specialization. Insurance companies take our field more seriously when we can demonstrate the specialized education and training required to effectively treat this population. Even in the absence of “requirements,” we can enhance our own specialization by obtaining additional education through workshops and conferences, attending webinars, reading journal articles and books, obtaining supervision, participating on listservs, and joining consultation groups. Becoming the most knowledgeable clinician you can be is a gift to yourself and to patients with binge eating disorder.
  1. Turn a blind eye to the most up-to-date evidence on treatment efficacy. What’s an “RTC” anyway?
Research has limitations, such as, at times, failing to include diverse populations and failing to capture important aspects of the work. However, dismissing the evidence in favor of what we feel works is doing no service to our patients. Many of us get caught in doing the familiar – what we trained on many years ago or what fits best with how we see ourselves. There, of course, needs to be a match between therapeutic style and intervention, but we also must stay abreast of the latest evidence base. The advances in neurobiology and behavioral science are accelerating, and to turn a blind eye means our patients may not be getting the most effective and evidence-based care. It also leads to insurance companies questioning our interventions, and perhaps rightly so in some cases.
  1. Assume that obesity and binge eating disorder are essentially the same issue. It makes life easier.
Conflating obesity and binge eating disorder does a disservice to everyone. We’ve observed providers utilizing inaccurate codes, for example that do not appropriately reflect the patient’s diagnosis or work that they are doing. While this may seem to help this particularly patient in accessing the care that they need, it perpetuates dangerous myths, such as that medical issues are of primary importance and behavioral health is secondary. It also leads to inaccurate assumptions, such as that all patients with binge eating disorder are obese or that all obese individuals have binge eating disorder. We know these are not true statements, and it limits our ability to have a more appropriate understanding of each of these realities.
  1. Come up with your own criteria for what level of care your patients need.
The American Psychiatric Association’s level of care guidelines (2000) were admittedly not written with patients with binge eating disorder in mind. However, they can be utilized as a valuable resource in conceptualizing a patient’s ability to function and interrupt their symptoms at each level of care. Frequently, patients with binge eating disorder are under-treated for their conditions, due to both difficulty for the patient in honestly disclosing their challenges, as well as providers continuing to treat patients even when the current level of care has failed the patient. Staying attuned to the level of care guidelines can help avoid patient frustration and exacerbation of symptoms, as well as help support our field as a whole in advocating for the appropriate coverage of the necessary levels of care.
  1. Treatment plans are for trainees. You know what you’re doing.
Having a formalized process for documenting your planned interventions is imperative. It helps to organize and keep you on track as a clinician. It gives the patient a tangible road map of their care, which they deserve to have. And, it helps us stay accountable to payors and other stakeholders that we are holding ourselves responsible for doing what works. Treatment plans will need to evolve as the treatment progresses and are not meant to be artificially limiting. Everyone involved in the patient’s care deserves to have an outline of what to expect and what you can offer.
  1. Just write down the bare minimum. You don’t want those notes subpoenaed!
Some clinicians express concern that more thorough documentation of the care will put patients at risk for confidentiality issues. In fact, some clinicians elect to not accept insurance for just this reason – they cannot guarantee that patient’s records will be kept confidential. On the flip side, there are many cases in which patients rely on accurate and comprehensive documentation, whether for their own understanding, appealing insurance decisions, or for legal matters. It is my belief that judicious and thorough documentation is a benefit to the patient and helps to accurately demonstrate the care that is being undertaken. If it’s not written down, it didn’t happen, after all!
  1. Leave it to your patients to figure out how to advocate with their insurance companies. It’s not your job to deal with that.
When insurance fails to cover treatment, not only does it potentially prevent or halt the important care that a patient is receiving, but it sends a subversive message to the patient: your illness isn’t serious enough to cover. This is one of the many reasons that a provider must support a patient in advocating for the necessary care. As providers, we are not simply sounding boards; we are active change agents that have the privilege and duty to advocate for those in our stead. We can do this from the outset of treatment by creating a process to explain insurance to our patients in understandable and empowering terms. If challenges do arise with coverage, help guide patients through the process and understand their rights as a consumer. As we know this process can be overwhelming, strive to involve support persons in the process, as well. And make yourself available for writing a letter, conducting an appeal via phone, or talking through the process.
  1. Stay siloed in your office and complain about insurance companies on Facebook.
Just as we instill in our patients, change – both at the individual and social level – begins with action. Our frustration with the insurance process will leave us – well, frustrated – unless we harness our energy to elicit real change. This means, first and foremost, getting educated on our healthcare system. Understand your own and your patients’ rights as healthcare consumers. 2016 saw landmark progress in mental health reform in large part because the eating disorder community was advocating tirelessly on its behalf. Real change happens when we educate ourselves, connect with others who are passionate as well, and use our voices.
  1. You don’t understand insurance, it’s way too complicated – that’s not what you went to school for! You want to provide therapy, not file insurance claims.
How much do you charge for your most utilized service? How much does your most utilized insurance company pay for that service? We have been living in an age of health insurance transition for the past few years, and we have been promised further transition in the future. Oftentimes, providers will be separated from the billing and insurance process. As providers, we can relate to the consistently confounding task that can follow health insurance coverage. Similar to the old saying, ‘it takes a village to raise a child,’ the same group effort requirement is felt when attempting to understand today’s health field. Transparency can start at the reception desk, but it should continue in the doctor’s office. We would not only be advocates for good mental health and well-being, we would also benefit our patients by providing reliable information about our own billing process.
Next, we need to help our neighbors understand insurance and billing procedures. What are the best sources for reliable updates on the health field and the mental health field? Share them with your fellows. What benefits or concerns are coming from the most recent legislation passed? Offer training for your coworkers, or put together a quick webinar for anyone interested. By working together, we can help each other understand, at the very least, how much we don’t know. Read insurance guidelines, build relationships with the insurance utilization reviewers, celebrate the calls that get coverage, and appeal, appeal, appeal.
Many difficulties are coupled to the Binge Eating Disorder that are not immediately evident. Fewer earnings, diminished workplace productivity, and lower probability of being employed are all potential by-products of the Binge Eating Disorder. The best way to recommend and advocate for appropriate treatment is to understand what it means clinically, as well as financially for the patient. Insurance is supposed to ease this stress, yet the utilization review process can often be a stress-inducing part of treatment. We cannot truly advocate for well-being if we are ignoring the highly stressful process of insurance authorization, finances, and appeals.
  1. Patients using their insurance should be very concerned about a mental health diagnosis being listed in their permanent record. That’s a primary reason not to work with insurance, we need to protect our clients.
As healthcare providers we should question how helpful and perhaps antiquated it is to endorse shame, fear, and concerns of self-incrimination for doing what individuals do every day – use their insurance to assist in payment for medically necessary care by healthcare experts.  The medical community does not villainize the ICD-10 and, conversely, the behavioral health community should not utilize DSM 5 as a tool for fear mongering.   Continued endorsement of this credence only serves to further stigma and shame for those needing mental health care.  As reported by Psychological Medicine, 2014, stigma ranked as the 4th highest of 10 barriers to mental health care.
  1. The insurance panels are full and they pay poorly. It’s impossible to work with them.
How much medical care would you and your family receive if you didn’t use your insurance to pay for services provided by participating providers, e.g., family practice doctor, pediatrician, orthopedist, cardiologist?  Likely, many of us would not be receiving necessary medical care.  The same is true for those needing quality mental health care – in the February 2014 issue of JAMA Psychiatry, Bishop et al., found that in 2009/2010 a lower percentage of office-based psychiatrists accepted health insurance (55.3%) compared to other office-based specialist physicians (88.7%). Bishop et al. also report the rate of participation in health insurance networks has declined faster among psychiatrists in recent years than among other specialists. We need to improve access for those clients who need your expertise.
Specialty medical providers often create IPA’s (individual practitioner associations) which support investments in improving contractual reimbursement, streamlining credentialing, and insurance communication.   It is time for eating disorder experts to band together and advocate for reasonable reimbursement for expert care at all levels of service.  Remember, “There is always strength in numbers.  The more individuals or organizations that you can rally to your cause, the better.” Author Mark Shields.
Disclaimer:  Numbered statements are intended to be provocative and exaggerated as a means of engaging the reader in the subject matter.  The authors have the utmost respect for the professionals who provide care on a daily basis to those with Binge Eating Disorder.

Wednesday, January 4, 2017

Understanding Anorexia in Males: An Integrative Approach Book Interview

om Wooldridge joined us to discuss his book, Understanding Anorexia in Males: An Integrative Approach. What follows are our questions in italics, and Tom’s thoughtful answers.
In Understanding Anorexia in Males: An Integrative Approach, you focus “on the male experience of anorexia nervosa.” What can you tell us about stigma and alienation for a male with anorexia nervosa (AN)?
The triad of stigma, shame, and alienation must be considered throughout all phases of the treatment, especially during treatment engagement and the early stages of building a working alliance. Men and boys encounter a different kind of stigma and shame than do women and girls. In addition to the stigma and shame that accompany having any psychiatric disorder, anorexia nervosa has been culturally labeled as a “women’s problem.” It’s common for me to hear patients express considerable shame about this. In addition, there is an adversarial relationship between traditional constructions of masculinity and help-seeking behavior. In other words, many men feel that it’s not masculine to seek help, to delve into their emotional lives, to shed tears. In the treatment process, this must be addressed with considerable empathy, exploration, and of course education about the fact that men are, indeed, sufferers of this disorder.
Alienation is likely inherent in having any psychiatric disorder; the degree of suffering that patients experience sets them apart from those around them who are “healthy.” When you add in stigma and shame, males with anorexia nervosa encounter a more complicated experience of alienation that needs to be explored throughout the treatment process.
You define an essential aspect of the therapeutic alliance – engaging in “taboo talk.” Please explain.
Taboo talk means straightforwardly acknowledging and exploring the part of the patient that is motivated to continue engaging in eating disordered behavior. When we as therapists, family members, or friends are confronted with a person who is depriving himself of nutrition (in addition to the other kinds of deprivation, which are emotional and relational), we naturally want to encourage him to change his behavior as quickly as possible. When we’re in the role of a treatment provider, though, it’s essential to first understand what motivates the patient, at the deepest level, and to allow him to give voice to that, with the hope that over time all aspects of the patient can be taken up more fully.
The essential idea here is that the parts that aren’t spoken inevitably return and undermine the recovery process. It’s not that we don’t want to influence the patient in moving toward recovery – of course we represent a possibility of health and healing – but we must also facilitate the patient’s developing authentic motivation that is rooted in himself, and that can never happen when parts of the self are silenced.
Can you please tell us more about the value of exploring the male client’s ambivalence about anorexia and recovery?
Any psychiatric disorder – and, in fact, with any aspect of our personality more generally – develops, at least in part, as a way of managing psychic pain. Put differently, in language that has more popular appeal, anorexia nervosa is a “coping mechanism.” When we encourage patients to engage in recovery and healing, we must recognize that we are asking them to give up ways of being – ways of managing painful emotions, difficult relationships, and other adversities that life inevitably brings to all of us. And patients who have relied on anorexia nervosa, with its characteristic rigidity and inflexibility, are confronted with a self that is depleted and empty as the disorder is increasingly relinquished. They intuit this and, so, are naturally ambivalent about moving toward recovery and the deeply painful experiences that the recovery process entails.
One aspect of the integrative approach presented in your book involves addressing “negative explanation” in males with AN. How do these explanations relate to the concept of “constraints”?
Negative explanation is an idea developed by Gregory Bateson, which casts intervention as a task of removing obstacles that prevent the patient’s healing process. Constraints are identified in the process of negative explanation. That is, constraints are statements of each particular obstacle that is identified in the treatment process. This way of thinking posits that the patient has a “true self” that, given the right environment, naturally moves toward health and healing. As an example, we would typically ask, “Why does Jay starve himself?” But with negative explanation, we frame the question slightly differently: “What keeps Jay from adopting a healthier and more balanced diet?”
In my way of thinking, this model has several advantages. First, I wanted to emphasize the patients’ innate resources. Second, it is notoriously difficult for treatment providers to work with patients with anorexia nervosa. It’s deeply upsetting to witness such a profound form of psychological and physical suffering, and this naturally elicits the provider’s desire to alleviate that suffering. Unfortunately, though, this patient population is notoriously sensitive to having their agency overridden. (Although this is certainly necessary at times, we must always recognize it for the trauma that it is.) By framing our case conceptualization using negative explanation, I am attempting to promote our recognition of the patient’s agency and how a facilitating environment can promote this.
What do you believe may contribute to an increased risk of eating disorders in the gay and bisexual male population?
That’s a very complicated question, and I don’t have a clear-cut answer. Gay men likely experience more cultural pressure around certain body ideals – for example, to be thin and “cut,” than their heterosexual counterparts. This is accompanied by more pressure to diet, for example. There also seems to be an increased incidence of childhood sexual abuse in this population. So these factors, along with the homophobia that is of course still rampant in our society, leave gay men facing more adversity than heterosexual counterparts. If we think of anorexia nervosa as a way of managing psychological pain, then it’s not surprising to me that we see an increased incidence in this population.
You note the paradox of pro-ana websites that “simultaneously encourage self-expression and provide a sense of belonging and understanding while simultaneously providing encouragement to pursue self-destructive practices.” What does the research tell us about pro-ana websites and their impact on males with AN?
As a researcher and a clinician, I think I can say unambiguously that pro-anorexia websites are profoundly disturbing. And yet we must ask – in the same way we ask about anorexia nervosa itself – what is the function of these forums for participants? And what I’ve suggested is that there are many different functions, ranging from the purely pathological (i.e., encouragement in the process of weight restriction) to the more nuanced (i.e., seeking social support around experiences of shame and alienation). We must also recognize that while it is sometimes possible to persuade patients to give up participation in pro-anorexia forums, in other cases it is not or, even worse, our attempts to exert influence lead to increased secrecy and even alienation between therapist and patient. This is why it’s so important to understand the function of these forums.
You’ve found a way to bring to light the remarkable complexities typically involved in the clinical treatment of AN and, specifically, males with AN. Any additional words you’d like to share with the professionals who read your book?
Thank you for reading the book! I wrote it with two purposes in mind. The first was to provide education about males with anorexia nervosa in an effort to address the shame, stigma, and misinformation that are so prevalent. At the National Association for Males with Eating Disorders (www.namedinc.org), colleagues and I have continued to work on this important task. The second was to highlight the complexity required in thinking about this complex form of suffering, and how that complexity necessitates a multifaceted approach to the treatment process. If you’ve taken away these two ideas from the book, then I think the writing process was well worth it to me!

The Little Girl with the Hummus Lunch

By Malak Saddy, RDN, LD
***This is the first of a two-part series that addresses the significance of culture and ethnicity in eating disorders treatment.
Food, religion, culture, and traditions are part and parcel of humans’ daily lives. It is perhaps the most unifying aspect of humanity. Past our bodily needs for nourishment, and sustenance, what, where, how, and perhaps with whom we eat, identifies us. Throughout history religious holidays worldwide have been celebrated with different foods and traditions as part of the gatherings and festivities, with each holiday having its soul dish, or dishes, reflecting that culture’s resources and the ethnicity of its people. Yet, for me it took two decades to appreciate being that unique individual.
The scene at the elementary cafeteria table was always awkward, cautiously pulling out my piece of pita bread, and tub of hummus from my lunchbox, and explaining it to all the girls sitting around me. I winced at the smell of fresh garlic while they were eating their crust-less peanut butter and jelly sandwiches, and sipping on Hawaiian Punch. I was always trying to avoid their repulsion, and stares, finally swallowing it down as quickly as possible in a private moment of humiliation. I wanted so desperately just to have a simple white bread sandwich in my lunchbox, or at least a cool name for the creamy mush that I brought in, almost every day.
Socializing outside of school was similarly loaded. On the rare occasion my parents would let me go to a friend’s birthday party, I quickly learned that the cheese pizza would vanish first and I would almost never get enough. Chuckie Cheese’s pizzas were always layered with loads of pepperoni and ham and as a Muslim, I couldn’t eat it—there’s a dietary prohibition on pork in Islam. I learned later, after experience and a couple of misses, to always leave my game machine no matter how close to winning I was, and be one of the first ones at the table, so I could get first dibs on a slice of cheese pizza.
My childhood insecurities were my earliest cognizance of the implications food has in our culture and our lives. My childhood home’s food supply was ruled by an American-Lebanese health nut (my mother) who only gave us cookies from packages scrawled with the words “oatmeal” and “flaxseed,” and always made sure we had protein for breakfast before going to school, even if that protein came from a can of tuna at 7 a.m.! She took advantage of our Middle Eastern ethnicity (hence the hummus for lunch), using that cuisine’s traditional ingredients like olive oil, cracked wheat, and plain yogurt, and infusing them with some of the American recipes she would find in health magazines. The results, always beautiful homemade meals, and the aroma of freshly cooked ingredients, welcomed us every afternoon coming back home from a long day at school.
Her nutritional awareness, and cautiousness, stuck with me. Preventing my father’s organs from being ravaged by diabetes was dependent on the foods we ate as a family. As his children, we are also genetically predisposed to diabetes, so nutritional meals and good eating habits were of utmost importance.
The positive and negative of that food equation mattered, I realized. I used that realization, but not always in a productive way. My later relationship with food was altered by the culture and media around me. Regardless of the foundation my parents instilled in me as a child, the media was more powerful and had the upper hand. Magazines, television ads, and billboards always displayed the skinniest, most beautiful girls, even if the ad was for dog food! There was no escape. I didn’t know how I could channel my good and bad experiences about food until I decided I wanted to become a dietitian with a focus on eating disorders.
Upon agreeing to write this article, I decided to dig a little deeper past my own personal definition of culture. When you Google the word “culture,” multiple definitions come up: top stories on how MTV is gearing more towards the young culture; creating positive cultures in the work place; culture of cheese; and the biological culture of bacteria. The definition that held true throughout my research, and was pertinent to this article was “culture is a way of life of a group of people—the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next.”(https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture.html)
Food consumption, restrictions, variety, and resources in a society, all affect that culture. As dietitians, therapists, or clinicians in this field, we must be thoroughly aware of our clients’ religious, and cultural backgrounds, to help build their trust in us, and be able to eventually help themselves through their personal recovery process. In my next part of this series, I will discuss the Hispanic and Asian ethnicities touching on cultural norms, dietary values, and common ingredients and foods used within each group. Religious sensitives of the Muslim, Jewish, Seventh Day Adventist, and Hindu population will also be broken down all in part to better prepare us before meeting with clients who identify to a specific faith or culture.

Finding Nourishment In Life As Well As In Food

by Karen R. Koenig, LCSW, M.Ed.
When we think of nourishment, what comes to mind is likely food—nutrition and eating healthfully to feed and sustain ourselves. We imagine furnishing our cells with nutrients to fuel our bodies and keep them in good repair. But what about how we fuel our minds and hearts? What do they require for sustenance?
If you consider our universal emotional and mental needs, then you know that doughnuts, chicken wings, carrots, fudge, or even the most nutritious, non-GMO, pesticide-free, organically grown foods won’t do the trick. To feel emotionally nourished, we must first recognize what our emotional needs are, then find ways to feed them. Here are six emotional/mental essential needs that, when met effectively, will help you eat more “normally”:  pleasure/play, challenge, wonder/awe, authentic connection to ourselves, authentic connection to others, and creativity and passion or a reason for living.
  1. Pleasure/play
Many dysregulated eaters act as if pleasure or play are dirty words. These people feel good about themselves only when they’re productive. If they want to relax or slow down, they believe they’re being bad or lazy and spur themselves on. They expect nothing less than perfection in all they do and beat themselves up if they don’t reach it. No wonder they turn to food for a good time.
We have a universal need for play, which is engaging in an activity merely for pleasure, not to meet any other goal. Play involves being in the moment, with no thought to how things turn out. It is all about tuning in to now. In play, there is no judgment, only absorption in each perfect, pleasurable moment.
  1. Challenge
Alternately, humans require appropriate, realistic challenges. Think Goldilocks: not too easy and not too hard. We enjoy learning new things at our own pace—tap dancing, crocheting, Chinese, skiing, chess, or origami. Learning both activates our brains and gives us a sense of satisfaction. It provides us with knowledge and teaches us new skills.
Too often we grind ourselves down by doing the same things in the same ways over and over. This pattern causes us to feel as if the lifeblood is being drained out of us or that we are robots, set on automatic as we march on through time. One reason we think we want to eat is because we’ve stopped taking a big, fat, juicy bite out of life. Starved for stimulation, we wrongly believe that drive-through, fast food is where we’re going to find it.
Dysregulated eaters may find it difficult to feel nourished by challenge because they so badly want to succeed and so hugely fear failure. They’re constantly judging themselves and fearing they’ll be judged by others. They want to know how to do everything correctly yesterday. But, by looking at challenge as a gradual process, one to engage in at our own pace, then learning new things becomes exciting and keeps us growing. And isn’t that what nourishment is for:  to help us grow?
  1. Wonder/awe
Another way we fail to nourish ourselves is that we don’t wonder enough because we want to play it safe. Both wondering and experimentation are ways of taking care of ourselves as much as sticking to a routine is. Wonder is how we bring awe into our lives—about the universe, how a snake undulates, the way no two snowflakes are exactly the same, how people who lived thousands of years ago are both similar and dissimilar to us, or what technology will be like at the dawn of the next century.
We are nourished by awe because it both takes us outside of ourselves, and also because it helps us feel deeply a part of the amazing world around us. Awe breaks down boundaries and takes our breath away. There’s nothing like this kind of mind- blowing feeling of oneness that nourishes us even after the fact, when we’re only remembering how we felt.
  1. Authentic connection to ourselves
It is vital to be connected to ourselves physically and emotionally, but it is not enough if what we are hooking into is only the person we wish to be. We need to feel connected to who we really are—the good, the bad, and the ugly. It’s not sufficient to only attune to yourself when you are feeling strong or successful. It’s equally, or possibly more important, to feel okay about ourselves when we see ugliness in ourselves that upsets or disappoints us.
Dysregulated eaters often don’t feel nurtured by themselves because they are so busy being critical of what they see when they look inward—what they did or didn’t do, all their wrong actions and none of the right ones, their worst moments rather than their best. An authentic connection means accepting yourself as human, even when you wish to be better. It’s not enough to pick and choose only those qualities in yourself to which you like to connect —your talents, strengths, and special gifts. The richest type of nourishment is offering yourself kindness and compassion when you’re at a low point. That’s what raises you up in your own eyes and makes you feel whole.
  1. Authentic connection to others
Many dysregulated eaters are unhappy with themselves and, therefore, are
uncomfortable with others. They are anxious about being judged and feel afraid to reveal their real selves. But think about the moments when you are your authentic self and make a connection to someone. Those moments are almost electric. When we bond with others, we feel warm and shiny inside and out. We are not meant to be alone. If we were, would there really be so many of us in the world?
Having authentic connections with others validates us and helps us see ourselves through new eyes. We get to see our strengths that we normally don’t recognize because we’re too busy zeroing in on our weaknesses. We get to see that we can laugh or cry, question or confront, or do a mediocre job or fail outright, and no one thinks the worst of us. Too often, dysregulated eaters go it alone and turn to food for comfort. This leaves them malnourished emotionally and generates craving for attachment that no amount of food will fill.
  1. Creativity, passion, or a reason for living
Not everyone can be wildly creative like John Lennon or Pablo Picasso. Some people
feel fulfilled by going to their same job every day and doing a service. Maybe they are bus drivers, are  EMTs, or are long distance truck drivers, teachers, or bank tellers. They know that what they do is of service to others and that this nourishes their sense of being valuable and valued. Others find their reason for living in dance, poetry, sculpture, films, or floral design. By making the world a better place through our creativity, we end up nourishing ourselves.
So many dysregulated eaters only feel excited by food—planning their next meal, hitting the snack machine mid-afternoon, zoning out on food at night when they’re lonely or bored. For others, their reason for living is to be 5 or 15 or 90 pounds thinner. Nothing matters but the number on the scale. Nothing makes them feel filled up like emptying themselves out violently or slowly slipping away pound by precious pound.
They could be putting their focus and energy into devoting themselves to a craft or doing good works. Instead of measuring life in terms of quality, life is all about quantity. Sometimes it’s acquisition and consumption of material goods. Sadly, because they’re never putting themselves out into the world in a meaningful way, they feel starved and empty inside.
Take time to consider what nourishes you emotionally. When you read over the above list, which are your strong suits and which are your weak ones? When you reach for food, which kind of nourishment are you really seeking? If you’re not hungry, it’s not food you want and you will need to figure out what will truly satisfy you. When you are fulfilled and know how to refuel and find fulfillment, you will no longer look to food or weight to enhance your life. You will know that there is more than one kind of way to feed yourself.